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nf ilurniicau v;\cv^ Coi Uvast L('i\"fcn the (irofks iiml Jv:i, H 1 r,i) ]m im ]r,-2 1 n;; 104 Cll APTKH V. Not content with ])hnid(M- and subsidies, he also abridged their most cherislied liberties. At llie same time, the feuds of the (nu'lph and Cdiibe- liiie fa(Mions, espoused by them, were fiercely fought out in ihe courl- of justice, the streets, and the market- ])lace. For se\-enty years after the ])eace of Constance, the .! The Guelphic nobles ^vere recalled, and the two factions were forced to enter into a treaty of jjcace. .|,,,]^ some' years later, a new constitution was esta- blished. Great are the varieties of climate, in Switzei'laud, EAKLY INDEPEXDE. OOO acconliiiii^ to tlie elevation and aspects ot" diderciit ]:»arts chai'. Thev enjoyed also the favour of the German emperors, to whom their allegiance was more assuix'd than tliat of the; ambitious counts. Ill ecclesiastical affairs the bishop and the clergy were still siqn'eme. 'Jlicy also addressed themselves earnestly to tlie re- formation of manners.

north of Italy, were besieged and pillaged, and often burned by liis savage soldiery. Constantly chosen as podi'sfiis, they al)used tlu' powers confided to them, with monstrous iiijustict' and \iolenee. and ]\lo(leiia — had disqualified tin' nobler for ])ublic em])lovments. The former ])arly was dislinj^aiislicd by the darinii' ambition of its chiefs, and their Lrenius for war and statecraft : the latter foi' the patri(^tism and devotion of its leaders. "'- This democratic movement was followed by the OUs pulley. The fortresses of the nobles within tlie city were destroyed. The mountains ai'e loft V iind ])reci[)ilous : but safe and conveiiienl passes have been found praclil:iin the sli'cngth and conrage of the people, and to leach them to wi'estle manfnlly with d'Utgers. Enriched by industry and thrift, while their warlike neighbours were ruined by feuds, by costly state and troops of armed retainers, they grew, in course of time, tol)e the dominant ])owers in Swiss society. Nor did the reformers confine r'suits',.t their teacliing to tlie rehuioiis instruction of tlieir flocks, tornu'.tiuii.

]^]\-en in the cities which had been t Viendlv or neutral, his jf rile republic itself. ri\al factii^ns and familii's continued in ])erpetual war- fare : they brought disorders into the k^tate : they de- tied ihe law ; and refused to submit themse K'es to tlie jurisdiction of the magisi rates. of national independence', have, at the same time, di- \i(h'(l ihi' country, by natural boundaries, into mnnrrous local connnunities, widely se})arated from one another. They were subject to little from their distant so\'ereigns ; and cn)wninu" the rugged heights of this land of mountain and valley whli their ibrdlied castles, they were ever readv tor ^\•ar and plunder. Thest' ])rinces still fnrlher faxonred the forlificalioii of towns, and the nuniicipal pi-i\-ileges of llieir iiiliabilants. Tliey showed lillle jealousv of liie towii'^ which were under their patronage, and contribuled to iheir re Ncnues. and, as yel, there was no approach lo a confcdri Mtion threatening llie general inlluence ol' the nobles.^ And ihus ihe towns con- tinued to grow, and llourish. ma(h' laws for their own government, and swore to oh^^erve them, 'idn'se assemblies A\-('re as priiriiti\'e as those of the ancient (4i'nnans. How far tile earnest spirit of the reformers pi^evai Unl Swiai over I he corruptions which they exposed, it is diff Kaill mwa-. Ihit their appeals were addressed to many willing" listeners, who had Ioul;' re- ])i"o! 373 tlie Thirty Years' War, when its absolute independence ciiai'. Austria and France had lonij been contendhig for a dominant influence in Switzerland : but from this period, France, wliich was the chief employer of its mercenary troops, and was also its nearest and most active neighbour, gradually obtained a decided ascendency ; and, partly by menace, and partly by liberal subsidies, directed the councils of the confederation.

lie banished all the inhabitants of JMilan, licli and ])oor, destroyed t Ju-ir houses, and rased tlie walls of their city. Tlie nobles, if united, miu'ht still t'le" lia\e retained nuich of their former iniluence : but class. Sucii being the character of the Swiss peo])le, the Cm-i-a- great mountain chains of the Alps, while serving as cidoiits .,f barriers against foreign States, and encouraging a spirit The greater dukes and counts domi- nated over the lesser nobles ; and scourged theii' neigh- bours with constant exactions. )y the Emperoi" to the dukes of the house of Zicfingen. — electing their oavu chief magistrate or ' Land- anunan ' and their judges, and dt-ciding all questions affecting the interests of the commune, by the imani- nioiis \()te of a general assembly of the people." '''■■''"■ It was the simplest form of democracv recorded in III ;lic '- '"'■'■~» the historv of the world. chiefs, or ])riests, the hardv monntaineers assembled, ill tlu' open air. in unmeasured terms, the .scandals of foreign pi'iisions, and the venality of those whom (u)(l had placed in authoi'ity over their fellow- citizens.

Yet was the government of Genoa otherwise purely The nobles , . The turbulence of these noble families, ill time of peace, had led to their exclusion from the magistracy : but when all the energies of the republic were strained by its wars with Pisii and Venice, it en- trusted its fleets to the command of noble admirals, who, l! It was their aim to gi\'e force to the execuli\"e, without impairing liberty ; and, at lirst, the (x})eriment a|)})ears to have been suc- cessful.- l)Ut in lo53, in order to retrieve a reverse to their arms, in their long contest with Venice, they sur- 1 ^i^msjiuii, Hid. Their crea- ti\e genius revealed itself in poetry, letters, philosophy, j)ainting, and architecture. The wealthy Mt'dici and the able Capponi, who was long ;;sociated with him, represented the prosperity and the stat(\smansliip of Florence. At the death of Cosmo, in 14G4, liis son Peter sur- eeeded him, as Ijy hereditary riglit ; and, ovt M'comin^u' the resistance of a popular party, led l)y ids rival Lucas Pitti, continued the family ruh', whieli, notwith^tandiniz" Ills ow]i weakne.-s, V\'as now assured. Abundant morals may be drawn Irom the tale of these celebrated com- numitics, unfavourable to liberty: l)ut before they are condemned willi too harsh a judgment, we should recal liic ci-imes of des})oiism, and the wroiigs it has inilicted on humanity. S COMPARED — EART, Y COXSXIXr XIOXS OF Tin; CAXTd XS — I'IUXCII'LES of COXFEDERAXIOX — THE FEDERAL COX- SXJXUTl UX.

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Want of a middle class Moral el K'Cts of the pu Wic domains Dcjieudtmce and corruption of the poor Deljtors and . To com])are Florence with Athens is no liistoj'ic fiucy : but, allowing for dillerences of time and t'ountry, these memorable cities may justly be regarded 1 Jsismondi, //«/. Without de- ])i-i\iiig their alhes of their liberties, they forced upon t Jiem a perpi'tual league, otreiisive and defensive, by wliieli they were bound to follow the standards of the dominant city, in all its wars. cities was dealt by the emperor, Frederick Barbarossa. They fortified and entrenched theb' castles within the walled cities, as if they had been on the hill-side, surrounded themselves with armed retaiiu TS. In Florence, the people inclined to the CTuel[)hs, but the 1210. Further south, l^ologna, a rich and populous city, Avitli a learned university, and a cultivated society, had a de- mocratic constitulion, and was staunch to the Gnelphic part3\ The Italian nobles u'enerally belono'cd to the Imperial or Ghibeline faction : the people to the Guc)liic or Church party. ii Mcler the dominion of the Ghibeline nobles, aided by the emperor. The movement which he led was rehgious i4;-^ — ' })olitic rulers contrived to sustain her independence. (,'ortf'S, cf n V'ti^it pa,- dans ur.e I'l'juil)- li jiu\ ([u" luci'liiui livroit jiis([U*anx cntants a scs tioiu Tfaux. ie rule than tlie milder races dwolling in the' plains. In k^witzerland, as in Italy and other (■t)untries, the towns became rivals of the territorial counts and of the Church, defending themselves from 0[)])ression and aflbrdinir protection and cili/enshipto the vassals of the iieighbourino- chiefs.

In short, the sense in which I Ik.' word is used, in any case, can only be judged aj'iglit from the context. It- ' West-End " Avas called tlie ' Upper to^vn." in which dwell llu' families av Iio i)egan to call themselves palri- (dan. Tliey had recently seciu'ed the means of admisr^ion to the roll of l)iirghers : bnt were still dis- satisfied witli their disal)ilities. 377 \hslc were the lending examples, the ts ; and leagued together to resist it.

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Want of a middle class Moral el K'Cts of the pu Wic domains Dcjieudtmce and corruption of the poor Deljtors and . To com])are Florence with Athens is no liistoj'ic fiucy : but, allowing for dillerences of time and t'ountry, these memorable cities may justly be regarded 1 Jsismondi, //«/. Without de- ])i-i\iiig their alhes of their liberties, they forced upon t Jiem a perpi'tual league, otreiisive and defensive, by wliieli they were bound to follow the standards of the dominant city, in all its wars. cities was dealt by the emperor, Frederick Barbarossa. They fortified and entrenched theb' castles within the walled cities, as if they had been on the hill-side, surrounded themselves with armed retaiiu TS. In Florence, the people inclined to the CTuel[)hs, but the 1210. Further south, l^ologna, a rich and populous city, Avitli a learned university, and a cultivated society, had a de- mocratic constitulion, and was staunch to the Gnelphic part3\ The Italian nobles u'enerally belono'cd to the Imperial or Ghibeline faction : the people to the Guc]])liic or Church party. ii Mcler the dominion of the Ghibeline nobles, aided by the emperor. The movement which he led was rehgious i4;-^ — ' })olitic rulers contrived to sustain her independence. (,'ortf'S, cf n V'ti^it pa,- dans ur.e I'l'juil)- li jiu\ ([u" luci'liiui livroit jiis([U*anx cntants a scs tioiu Tfaux. ie rule than tlie milder races dwolling in the' plains. In k^witzerland, as in Italy and other (■t)untries, the towns became rivals of the territorial counts and of the Church, defending themselves from 0[)])ression and aflbrdinir protection and cili/enshipto the vassals of the iieighbourino- chiefs. In short, the sense in which I Ik.' word is used, in any case, can only be judged aj'iglit from the context. It- ' West-End " Avas called tlie ' Upper to^vn." in which dwell llu' families av Iio i)egan to call themselves palri- (dan. Tliey had recently seciu'ed the means of admisr^ion to the roll of l)iirghers : bnt were still dis- satisfied witli their disal)ilities. 377 \hslc were the lending examples, the ts ; and leagued together to resist it.

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